The Paris Agreement on Climate Change was published in December 2015 and came into effect on 4 November 2016 after it was ratified by more than 55 countries, which together contribute approximately 55% of global emissions. Contrary to most global agreements it has a ‘bottom-up’ structure. This means that countries submit their own climate change targets (called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions – INDCs) to combat climate change as opposed to following an agreed ‘top-down’ standard or goal. The intention of the Agreement is to commit signatories to maintaining global warming to no more than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.


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United Nations